I was reading the book “The Discovery of India” by Jawaharlal Nehru, the following lines struck me real hard and compelled me to share it with all of you. I think If we apply these lines to the grief-stricken community of Quetta, It can actually become a ray of hope for the people. Now read the following passage and tell me what are your ideas.
“How amazing is this spirit of man! In spite of innumerable failings, man, throughout the ages, has sacrificed his life and all he held dear for an ideal, for truth, for faith, for country and honor. That ideal may change, but the capacity for self sacrifice continues, and, because of that, much may be forgiven to man, and it is impossible to lose hope for him. In the midst of disaster, he has not lost his dignity or his faith in the values he cherished. Plaything of nature’s mighty forces, less than a speck of a dust in the universe, he has hurled defiance at the elemental powers, and with his mind, cradle of revolution, sought to master them. Whatever Gods there be, there is something godlike in man, as there is also something of the devil in him.
The future is dark, uncertain. But we can see part of the way leading to it and can tread it with firm steps, remembering that nothing that can happen is likely to overcome the spirit of man which has survived so many perils; remembering also that life, for all its ills, has joy and beauty, and that we can always wander; if we know how to, in the enchanted woods of nature.
‘What else is wisdom? What of man’s endeavour
Or God’s high grace, so lovely and so great?
To stand from fear set free, to breathe and wait;
To hold a hand uplifted over Hate;
And shall not Loveliness be loved for ever?’
(Chorus from ‘ The Bacchae of Euripides. Gilbert Murray’s translation.)”
“Why the fuck should I be so careless as to park my bike over there” … This sentence was on a loop play for a week in my mind when my little brother was 4 years old. I had parked my Honda 70 cc in a wrong spot and my little brother, seeing the opportunity to have some fun, had mounted the bike. I don’t know about what exactly had caused his fall, but that resulted in him nearly loosing a tooth and partially breaking an other. He had a beautiful set of teeth !
This incident was discussed in our family gathering for quite some time and the person guilty of parking the bike in the wrong spot was criticized every single day!
That was not a small incident but NOW it is.
June 30th, this date is what my family will not forget. That is the unfortunate day when one of our dear members became the victim of a game so shadowy that neither the victims and nor the perpetrators know the rules of! Behrang Yosufi (May He Rest In Peace) might have had plans for his Monday class, but as I said the situation in Quetta knows of no rules. Men, women, children, students, laborers and … no body is excluded. Belonging to a certain faith and a certain tribe, the Hazaras are destined to face all these atrocities.
The young, vibrant and jolly member of our family will certainly be missed and will be discussed in our gatherings. But will we be able to bash and criticize the ones claiming responsibility for our pains? Will the government and LEA’s be human enough to have any sentence stuck in their minds like the one I had ?
The loss of PB 2 seat to the religious extremist group, MWM, seems pretty much indigestible to Hazara community in general and HDP in particular, even almost 2 weeks after the announcement of results! The Hazaras are in a state of, i don’t know what you call it in english, but believe me, it is not a good mental state!
Continuing with the episode …
After the announcement of the results ( I mean the result which was changed or what most of people believe so), the Hazara Democratic Party’s social handles (HDP Official FB and HDP Official Twitter) went mute. This was a surprise blow for HDP. Seeing the public support and all the leads they had achieved from different polling station, losing the seat was the last thing they expected. Therefore, the concerned office holders of HDP are said to have gone out to check about what had caused the results to get changed suddenly!
There are unconfirmed reports about this sudden change of results. Some people blame Sardar Sadaat for visting Cannt ( that means a deal was brokered with the establishment ) , others blame MWM of using unfair means in the elections. Whatever it may have been, people eye the results with suspicion!
The announcement of MWM’s win was declared official, however it was not uploaded to election commision’s website due to the objections raised by HDP and Sahar Gul.
Votes were recounted on May 12 in Kacheri late in the night and when the votes were still being counted, i.e. the counting had not finished yet, the above document was uploaded in a pro-MWM page.
Until that moment HDP was not sure about its loss. This recounting confirmed it !
The same night, 6 rockets were fired on Quetta city and a sucide blast targetted Mushtaq Sukhera, IG Balochistan. He survived the attack !
May 13th , a pro-extrimist and propagandist page (one of the most filthiest of it’s kinds), announced Abdul Khaliq Hazara ill to cause panic among the people!
They often use this techniques to casue misconceptions and panic among the already tense people of Quetta.
Meanwhile, Abdul Khaliq Hazara was safe and sound addressing a press conference in which he turned down the forged results of the election. You can access the Press release here!
Meanwhile, on May 13th MWM was busy entertaining the guests and elders of different places who had arrived to congratulate them on their win !
Hazara Democratic Party and its leadership, after issuing a press statement continued to protest against the injustice done to them. They staged a peaceful and civilized protest outside Press club on May 14th.
Later in the night, a boy, reportedly an admin of one of the propagandist pages was attacked by some unkown people. The boys picture was uploaded on the page and its caption read :
Interestingly, the picture doesnot indicate any sign of stabbing on his neck but chest. But if he was stabbed as shown in the picture, I, for instance do not think he would be able to pose for a picture. Anyhow, as I mentioned earlier, an admin of a propagandist page!
I would otherwise have avoided uploaading the above picture but I wanted you people to have an idea about how these certain pages make mountains out of a haystake !
May 15th, was the day when a flood of HDP supporters including men, women and children took to the streets to show their support to the HDP leadership and raise their morale. This conveyed the message that HDP still is very popular among people !
These series of events were very confusing to watch. A fine line had been drawn between the factions of the Hazara community and the aftershocks of the elections engraved that pretty deep which is very difficult to fill in near future.
On Friday 17th May 2013, MWM clergies after comming to power, organized a protest against mutilation of grave of a companion of Imam Ali. A like wise protest was held on last friday of Ramazan in 2010 by the same clergies in which more than 75 Hazara youth lost their life.
On 16th May, HDP miraculously found a solid evidence against the informalities that had occured against them. Authentic ballot papers mostly bearing HDP votes were found from trash cans and areas where trash is dumped.
Abdul Khaliq Hazara protested against it on GEO TV in the eve of 17th May on Capital Talk programme with Pakistan’s senior journalist Hamid Meer. You can listen to him here. Forward the video to 20:00 !
A huge public gathering was called on 18th May by HDP which was attended by 10,000 people according to some sources (not confirmed but you can estimate from the picture)
The number of people present in the gathering even after the election shows the support HDP has gained among Hazara community.
When appeals to the courts and election commision’s regional office in Balochistan could not solve the concerns of HDP, Abdul Khaliq Hazara left for Islamabad to protest against the rigging on 18th May.
Likewise, HDP conducted a public gathering in Hazara Town to enlighten people against the game that has been plotted against them. It was attended by thousands of people male and female on 19th May!
Things have surfaced pretty quickly and lets hope it turns out in favor of the Hazara community. This is for now! I will try to keep you updated as the story develops !
NOTE (PG 18+): This post will be termed as BIASED by most of the people. Therefore children under 18 and those with weak hearts are advised to read it under parental supervision !
If you are not aware of the situation in Quetta, Pakistan, let me tell you that nowadays the hottest topic in the extremly polarised Hazara community, is the loss of [PB-2 Quetta-2] seat for some of the community members while for the others, it is the victory in that particular constituency.
Why is it a hot topic? Well, let me give you some background info.
MWM (Majlis Wahdat Muslimeen) was contesting HDP (Hazara Democratic Party) for that particular seat. When I say contesting, I mean I-will-die-for-that-seat type of contesting!
MWM had a ‘Bedouin Tent’ as its election symbol which the MWM clergies attributed to the ‘Tents’ of Imam Hussain in Karbala ( The tents were burnt by Yazid’s force when Imam Hussain lost the battle) for gaining the support of this extraordinary religious community.
On the other hand, HDP, having ‘Moon’ as its election symbol attracted people by promising moonlight in the dark nights of Quetta (Metaphorically) for the Hazara people!
Following the Shia version of Islam (95%) and experiencing the worst decade of persecution in their history in Pakistan, the Hazaras of Quetta were baffeled in their decision of choosing who to vote!
“Our life is for Hussain and so is our VOTE” was a popular slogan which MWM, an Iranian funded religious cum political organization, chanted at it’s political gatherings to blackmail the people using their religious beliefs inorder to gain their support! The political gatherings are also reported to have mostly been more of a religious sermons with the clergies telling tales from Karbala and asking on how not to let Imam Hussain down by not forgetting the “Tent” of Imam Hussain while casting their vote !
HDP, the nationalist bunch (as they are termed by the MWM workers), are said to have spent most of their political addresses prior to election in defaming MWM and asking people not to vote the extremists/secterian organization because of whom the Hazara community has burried 1000+ souls in a span of 10 years! Further more, HDP’s slogan to gain public support was ” The Vote of the community, FOR the community … The decisions of the community, In the hands of the community”. Through this slogan HDP is thought to have sent the message to the people that MWM is a puppet organization whose decisions come from people other than the candidate running for the election, that is their decisions are dictated by IRAN !
These political rallies and gatherings continued with fervor. Both the parties were busy in mounting party flags and banners on every corner of the Hazara neighborhood. The enthusiasm was so high that during one of such routine flag mounting rallies, the workers of MWM attacked a party leader of HDP and reportedly injured him.
The attacker was identified and instead of taking the matters in their own hands, HDP leadership chose to lodge an FIR against the person who committed the crime. However, the boy was later released and was welcomed warmly by the MWM clergies as a Hero.
After that incident things went pretty normal except for a sucide attack which was aimed at Abdul Khaliq Hazara, Chairman HDP and the person contesting for PB 2 seat. Khaliq escaped the attack unhurt!
Just days before the election, the divide between the Hazara community was clearly visible when MWM and HDP organized a gathering on Alamdar road both at the same day! That day, loyalities of the people were confirmed and the parties achieved their goal of breaking the community into TWO.
The divide in the community forced alot of the community members to get out of their homes on 11th May, 2013 and cast their votes.
Later, on the night of the pollings when the votes were done counting. Abdul Khaliq Hazara was announced winner with major leads coming from every polling station. The unofficial announcement of Khaliq’s victory, while votes from two polling stations were still due, was celebrated by HDP supporters for quite some while with great zeal. Moods changed once the official results were announced against Khaliq. The 3000 lead in votes was changed against Khaliq and Victory was announced in favor of Syed Raza of MWM. This was when MWM supporters took to the streets and celebrated !
I still remember the glitter of hope that shone in the eyes of people when they folded their sit-in after they were ensured security following the last deadly blow of extremism which claimed 86 innocent lives. The glitter of hope shone in an optimistically deceitful way, which has now become a feature of our people as we seem to overlook the desperate threats that await us, blinded by the deceptive clam that follows the storm. You would believe for a moment that the hopeful gleam in the eyes of people had conspired with the vengeance of gloom throbbing in the hearts of the terrorists, committing that “That’s it! No more of the suffering,” and the fleeting clam following the storm had almost pounded nails in the coffin of their suffering until the eve of Feb. 16, 2013 when these deceitfully optimistic or recklessly hopeful people were, yet again, caught by surprise in the middle of their everyday chore, bargain hunting for their weekend recreation. Ladies doing errands, merchants grinning at the bargains, children awed in wander by the pleasance of the free evening, and some young rosebuds clinging to their school bags, scheduling their weekend hours between their homework and games, when they were precipitously given the surprise “Bhooom!” at their back, frightening and freezing them to death.
Yet again the birds of peace dwelling on the branches and giggling the new spring melody were thumped to fly away. Yet again the heaven of Quetta was smoked with the smog of fear and terror. And yet again, as I am writing these lines, we are haunted by the malignant tentacles of religious extremism.
Sitting in solitude at the dissection table of the fresh tragedy, I am picking and examining bits and pieces of our social, religious and national comportment that have been blown and defaced. And as I am doing this, I keep asking myself, “Why on earth do I need to do this unusual postmortem? After all, the very cause of the fatality, the very instrument of this inhuman mayhem (perhaps I am wrong to regard it inhuman, for it takes only a human ingenuity and resourcefulness to wreak a mutilation of this magnitude) is mere evident and ever was from the moment these bits and pieces were being collected.” But I can’t but convince myself that it is this microscopic and painstaking postmortem that is much requisite at the moment which can turn in to an “ante mortem’’ cognizance about the defacements that await us at the edge of the abyss of sub sequence. I wish the wholes of negation to the slightest of the probability of a sequel of such horrific episode, but the realistic self within prompts me of the dangling sword of Damocles that sways on our heads, owing to our very social, religious and national demeanor.
I have witnessed proceedings of all such processions and sit-ins, and have shaken a head of grief at every of such unfortunate junctures that have got us to heave our grief at the world’s face. Not stale enough, the dragging and up-to-the-minute of which is the instance of our protests on the Hazara Town tragedy of 16 February, 2013. Apart from the gravity of this havoc that has torn anguish in countless hearts, myself being one of them, I figure it’s high time we apprehended causality of our tendencies and analyzed causes and effects of our sufferings rather than merely mourning them. The instant postmortem has led me to a crucial finding that we, at the hottest instant moment, are reminiscence of a patient who is suffering from a fatal wound in the eye, blurring his vision, (a metaphor of our vision as a nation), but is perseveringly being medicated with Antiarrythmics and Beta Blockers (Anti-arrhythmia drugs help keep abnormal heart rhythms under control and Beta-blockers relax the heart) in the stead of the medicine that should heal the sight wound and secure his vision. As a result of the primary misdiagnosis, the secondary atrocity to the patient is the irony that when the patient fails to respond to the “Beta Blockers” to fetch him cure to his eye wound, the physicians increase the dose of the “Beta Blockers”. The patient previously taking 20mg dose of the drug must now take 100 mg dose of the same ill-prescribed medicine, needless to say that slightest of the idea does not cross the physician’s mind to reconsider his prescribed medication.
To be more elaborate, every time I attend such outburst of emotions in the processions post such havocs, I haplessly witness the same ill-prescribed, illogical, dogmatic, extremism-oriented and heart relaxing Beta Blocker like slogans and catchphrases raised in the euphoria that it shall be the antidote to the cancer of extremism. The dose of these Beta Blockers, these slogans is so hallucinating that it takes hell of a time and temperament for its jubilation to fade away. And as this ill medication continues, we, the patient, are losing our vision as a nation. Our pathway, trailing civilization is clinging to a blur of pathlessness.
I am done with my postmortem of the chunks of our social, religious and national demeanor that have once again littered the streets in Quetta, and am in tears. You would also vomit this sour acidic filth were you so closely examining those bloodshed torn lumps that portrayed no identity. I wish that we’re done with the post postmortems and that these become the “ante mortem’’ cognizance to lead us through this difficult time.
Being a Human, I should keep silent and tend to shrouding my dead clan members. I should remain silent and let my countrymen shout against the injustices of cruelest form being done to me and my people. But then again, being a Pakistani Hazara, I should remember that I am a lesser Pakistani, I am a minority, I am one of the ‘Les Misérables’ and that my countrymen are dead! They are the walking talking dead who are alive and hyperactive only when it is 14th February – Not to celebrate Love, no sir, but to condemn and renounce it. Being a Pakistani Hazara I have to keep it in mind that my countrymen are no longer my well wishers! Someone has put it beautifully:
“Remaining Quiet After A Tragedy, By God, Is No Less Than The Tragedy Itself”
A countrymen speaks up and stands up for his fellow, he does not inflict another tragedy to his already grieving fellow.
I want to write lots of things but the successive shocks and psychological pain conquers me and I reach a dead end every time I realize how fragile and vulnerable has the Pakistani Hazaras become.
I was reading Nehru today. He has written beautiful lines about DEATH which is inflicted on innocent people for no reason. In a paragraph I thought he was a man from future and was writing about the current situation of Quetta. He writes:
“But here death had no purpose, no logic, no necessity; it was the result of man’s incompetence and callousness, man-made, a slow creeping thing of horror with nothing to redeem it, life merging and fading into death, with death looking out of the shrunken eyes and withered frame while life still lingered for a while. And so it was not considered right or proper to mention it; it was not good form to talk or write of unsavory topics. To do so was to ‘dramatize’ an unfortunate situation.”
Have you ever thought about what would it have been like if Language – the medium for social interactions and sharing ideas – had not been created? Some of you might have given it a thought but most of you may have faced this question for the very first time. Interestingly, there might even be some who are actually answering the question right now! They might be like, “Hell, all I know is that we would not have to go through the pain of reading this article had the languages not been created.” And to those impatient readers I suggest, please keep reading patiently because It is discussing an Important issue. This blog post is about SURVIVAL. My survival, Your survival !
The once peaceful city, our ‘Little Paris’, our ‘Fruit Basket’, our “Quetta” has undergone a very sudden transformation and has turned into a zombie city. What were the causes of this radical change? What facilitated this transformation? and the never ending questions like these are beyond my analyzing ability. Therefore, I will stick to the damage assessment. Because it is the first step towards achieving restoration.
The counts are different. Some say that our Hazara community has lost 800+ members in the recent waves of targeted killings and mass executions. Others state the numbers as high as 1100+ lives, lost in this genocidal attempt. These numbers are precisely the number of individuals who have been the direct victims and have LOST their lives. I mean, these are the individuals who have literally received the bullets and shrapnels to make it to the statistic charts. The count for the Injured, lots of whom are permanently disabled, crosses 3000 souls. However, the families of these victims, for whom they have left a dim future as a legacy, don’t count ! The families are not regarded as victims because if we do so, the number of the victims will skyrocket … And to everyone’s astonishment, all these killings have happened in a time period of 10 years and in a city which is literally surrounded by army bases and where the only Command and Staff College of Pakistan army is located! Pretty fucking scary, huh? Believe it or not, that’s how it is.
Well, the thing is that I personally don’t consider the loss of 1100+ people to be the scary part. Don’t get me wrong! I mean it is insane and I acknowledge the loss of loved ones to be a tragedy and I know it because my family has been the first of the victims of this dirty situation in Quetta! And no pain can be greater than the pain of mothers losing their youthful gems … All I want to say is that the greater calamity and the bigger reason to panic, for our Hazara community, apart from losing loved ones is that we have completely lost our sense of directions. We have become a living example of passengers of a ship, who in a case of a heavy storm instead of paddling away from it, are busy cutting the ship and building lifeboats out of it, everyone for himself. No one is trying to start a productive or solid plan to tackle this tricky situation which is harming us 10 times greater than just the simple yet heartbreaking loss of our community members.
We are losing more than just precious lives! And we don’t seem to acknowledge it.
While everybody is trying to save his own hide, they are unaware of what they are losing in the process. My dears, we are losing the opportunities of training our youth. We are missing the chances of shaping them into useful members for our countries. We are losing them to the panic and hysteria created by this current situation. We are losing a whole generation who are supposed to carry out the task of making lives of our fellow community members better than what we are living in today. Basically, We are losing our soul. We are losing our teen spirit. “And there is nothin like the sight of an amputated spirit. There is… no prosthetic for that.”
Therefore, it is an appeal from all my fellow focused, concerned and ‘Dil Soz’ brothers and sisters to get together on one platform and help our community train a FIT youth because it is you who are going to be the flag bearers of tomorrow. Act today to train a fit squad for your future. Because the world is becoming a very competitive place to live in. And only the fittest will have the chance of survival.
This task is not an easy one, neither is this a one man job. We will need to break our egos and come out of our imaginary cocoons of perfection and try to cooperate with each other in order to make this work. This is the only way forward and sharing ideas and conversing has been the basic factor for human being’s progress. We are the youth and we speak in the same language of high spirits let’s not let our Nation succumb to the injustices of this competitive world.
I have made ‘This Group” on Facebook where we can get together and discuss the formation of a platform.
Note: Membership will be granted after assessment of profiles! Please don’t take it as a personal thing.
If you are living in Asia or you are slightly interested in Asian History, then you ought to know about the Silk Road. In case you are not, then I will have to direct you HERE so that you should know what am I going to say in the next few lines. Writing that, I will continue that, although, the glories of the once magnificent era of our region has now just been limited to the pages of history and almost all the countries connected by the Silk Road are now known all over the world with stereotypes which are always dark and grim, there still is a group which is dancing and singing and composing for the revival of our lost glories. The group is non other than Ballet Afsaneh!
Their fascinating effort exceeds the capability of words to define it. This video is just a small trailer of their much fruitful and bigger picture.
To be honest, the recent execution style killings of our tribesman in Quetta has not affected me the way it has moved other members from my community! Had it been three years ago, I seriously would have wasted my time imagining about joining any armed group to retaliate instead of writing this blog post. But not any more! This change in attitude maybe because I have matured or to put it the right way, may be I have turned into a coward self, fearing the consequences. You may decide whatever you feel like.
But as I see it, my current state of emotional numbness is something built-in. It activates when the body starts choosing between “Suffering” and “Letting go”. And in my case, I think i have chosen the “Letting go” option.
“Letting go”, as I have a definition of it in my mind means something very different. It never means being indifferent about what is happening to others. I will try to make it as simple as I can for you dears to understand … Let me put it this way … Think of yourself as a Platoon leader in US army during World War II and you are trying to land on “Iwo Jima” Island … You are under constant artillery shelling and the Japanese machine guns located on higher grounds are tearing your men down … In that situation when you are a target to any flying bullet, your only objective is to find a safe trench to hide in and prepare for taking down the machine guns … In your way to finding a hideout in the battlefield, the probability of your men getting injured or killed is very high … And when one of them gets hit, this is where you have to “let go” … Although you are responsible for every Private in your platoon, still you will have to “let go” … Because you have an objective to complete without which you have a great chance of loosing the whole platoon… Similarly, in the current situation of Quetta, “Letting go” and finding a trench in that battlefield to avoid any further loss should be our primary objective. But unfortunately, we are acting very confused in that battlefield.
You can compare our current response to killings in Quetta as that of a soldier’s who refuses to receive first aid after getting hit by a bullet! And insists on finding the culprit who shot him first and getting medical attention afterwards.
Summing up, I would insist every Hazara intellectual to try to come with a practical solution to this problem Hazaras of Quetta are facing today. Because ten years from now, I don’t want my baby brother to suffer what we are suffering now. And I have no appetite for becoming a part of community whose youth are all suffering from Post-traumatic stress nowadays.
p.s. DON’T NOT BE PROUD OF BRINGING YOUR KIDS TO PROTEST RALLIES
p.p.s. KEEP THESE KILLING TALKS AWAY FROM CHILDREN BECAUSE IT HAS A VERY BAD EFFECT ON THEM!
5 months and 5 days before I was born, “Afshaar” burnt to ashes. That day was 11th February 1993. If you are expecting this post to be an account of the sufferings of the victims of that “Tragedy”, I am sorry because it is not. Personally, I think no author will ever become able enough to register that “Tragedy” with all its sufferings and pain in the pages of history because there are limitation for everything, and the suffering of the ” Martyred City” has exceeded that limits of inscribing. This may seem a little exaggerated for some of you but when you experience a situation where a son is slaughtered in front of his mother, a child is hung to wall with a dagger, a relic is written on the wall of a ruined house with the blood of a human and … then will you understand what I meant.
It was the 18th anniversary of “Tragedy of Afshaar” and being a Hazara and belonging to the victims of Afshaar, people observed it ceremoniously, many of our great writers and intellectuals (which included Tajiks) wrote about Afshaar. They wrote about what happened and how did it happen and who were involved and how were they involved, they advised us of understanding the situation and acting sensibly so that the ” History should not repeat itself” and things like that. But I think they missed to explain some part of it. They did not explain us about the certain realities and the political condition of that time because of which we have a little biased idea about what happened.
I have read some of that articles, and the effect it had on me is that it further increased the intensity of hate I had for the people responsible for that “Tragedy”, and it also changed my idea about how merciless can a person become. Ultimately it taught me many things but the only thing it lacked (or may be i have not read all the articles) is to tell me that “Ahmad Shah Masood” or “Sayyaf” or “Mohsini” or ” Syed Hadi” or ” Anwari” … do not represent their entire ethnic group. They were individuals, merciless and proud rascals, who had nothing in common with a human but the name.
I think it would be correct to say that “Tragedy of Afshaar” was not a treason done by Tajiks, Pashtuns and Syeds to Hazaras. Moreover it was a crime committed by some lousy, cheap and inferior dogs to humanity. The acts of those individuals cannot be a certificate for blaming their whole ethnic group. Because I am sure that be it a Tajik or a Pasthun, when they hear that a seven month pregnant women is shot in her womb, their every muscle will strain out of fear and amazement. They will never be proud of being so cruel and they will never praise such murderers. ( At least this is the bubble i am living in).
Finally, I want you people to know that “Tragedy of Afshaar” does not belong to Hazaras only. It belongs to humanity and everyone should learn from such incidents so that they should neither be the victim, nor the creator of such tragedies. As Sardar Shafee had said ” War is the biggest disloyalty to humanity”. Try to love Tajiks but not Ahmad Shah Masood, Try to love Pashtuns but not “Sayyaf”.